The Culdees

The Culdees (Irish: Céilí Dé, lit. “Companions of God”) were members of ascetic Christian monastic and eremitical communities of Ireland, Scotland, and England in the Middle Ages.


  1. An Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees of Iona And of their settlements in Scotland, England and Ireland by John Jamieson D.D. (1811)
  2. New Advent – Culdees
  3. Culdees – Wikipedia
  4. Knights Templar the Culdees in Scotland
  5. Hope of Israel Ministries – The 12 Apostles and the culdees